A vassal or feudatory is a person who has entered into a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including the grant of land held as a fiefdom. The term can be applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, a fidelity, or fidelitas, was a sworn loyalty, subject to the king.
In fully developed vassalage, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty, including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance. According to Eginhard's brief description, the commendatio made to Pippin the Younger in 757 by Tassillo, Duke of Bavaria, involved the relics of Saints Denis, Rusticus, Éleuthère, Martin, and Germain – apparently assembled at Compiègne for the event. Such refinements were not included from the outset when it was time of crisis, war, hunger, etc.. Under feudalism, those who were weakest needed the protection of the knights who owned the weapons and knew how to fight.
Feudal society was increasingly based on the concept of "lordship" (French seigneur), which was one of the distinguishing features of the Early Middle Ages and had evolved from times of Late Antiquity.
.hiv is a generic top-level domain (gTLD) proposed by the Berlin-based nonprofit dotHIV and owned by Uniregistry as of September 2014. It is the first open charitable gTLD and its ICANN designation states that the domain's operator is precluded from making a profit. Funds raised from .hiv domain sales will initially benefit projects to increase access to HIV/AIDS treatment in Rwanda, South Africa, Turkey, and the United States.
The top-level domain (TLD) was inspired by the anti-HIV/AIDS campaign by thjnk, a German advertising agency. thjnk's co-owner Michael Trautmann established dotHIV gemeinnütziger e.V. as a nonprofit and applied for the .hiv TLD. Despite the global relevance of HIV/AIDS, dotHIV was the only applicant for the .hiv TLD. The company signed a registration contract with ICANN in March 2014. Domains were made available for select companies and individuals during the July "sunrise" period, becoming generally available in August 2014. hiv became the first open charitable TLD and, according to one press release, "opens up a dedicated namespace that brings website owners together behind one goal: The end of AIDS".
HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells,apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
After her retirement from the Population Fund in 2000, Sadik served as special adviser to the secretary-general and special envoy on HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific... health and rights and population policies and for her tireless efforts to combat HIV/AIDS,” his spokesman said.
New data from the JointUnited Nations Programme on HIV/ Aids (UNAids) on the global HIV response has revealed that Malawi is on track to eradicate the HIV/AIDS pandemic by 2030. Here’s what Malawi is doing right to fight HIV ... SWEET NEWS! #Malawi HIV/Aids infection rate down 61 percent, according to the #unaids2022 report.
Cameroon was resolute to combat sexually transmitted infections especially HIV/AIDS among young people, the country's Minister of Youth affairs and Civic education, Mounouna Foutsou said while officially launching the campaign in the capital Yaounde... Programme on HIV and AIDS.
In Barcelona, BCNCheckpoint, which focuses on AIDS/HIV prevention in gay and trans communities, is now contacting at-risk people to offer them one of the precious vaccines ... “The same thing happened with AIDS/HIV, when at one moment the group of men who had sex with men was the ...
Hard-won progress against HIV has stalled, putting millions of lives at risk, according to an alarming report released July 27 on how the COVID-19 pandemic and other global crises are jeopardizing efforts to end AIDS... The sobering news comes as the International AIDS Conference begins in Montreal — where some promising science is being reported.
(LifeSiteNews A Fox News panel went ape-crazy after a guest suggested that men should stay away from gay orgies if they don’t want to get monkeypox ... We saw with the AIDS crisis, with the HIV crisis, about how … gay people will be stigmatized over something that lots of people do,” Polumbo claimed ... “I’m glad Brad brought up HIV/AIDS,” Harf added.
Weekly news express with MCQs— MSMEs to Cheetahs and more ... Further, State/DistrictAIDSControlSocieties are authorised to do emergency local procurement of ARV drugs (as per requirement, & as an interim measure) from their budgeted Grant-in-aid ... HIV AIDS HIV drugs HIV patients HIV treatment ... Latest News ... Delhi News Live ... Chennai News Live.
Those who do have monkeypox and are struggling to get access to treatments,” said Tyler TerMeer, chief executive officer of the San FranciscoAIDSFoundation... They’ve expressed frustration over the inability to get the vaccine and fears they’re being abandoned yet again in a public health crisis, much as they were with HIV and AIDS.
Punitive and discriminatory laws that stigmatize marginalized communities are hindering the fight against HIV/AIDS, says a senior UN health expert, interviewed by UN News ahead of the 2022 International AIDS conference ... UN News What are the links between HIV/AIDS and development?.
Punitive and discriminatory laws that stigmatize marginalized communities are hindering the fight against HIV/AIDS, says a senior UN health expert, interviewed by UN News ahead of the 2022 International AIDS conference ....
FRIDAY, July 29, 2022 (American Heart AssociationNews) -- When a medical technician demonstrating to a high school class how to check blood pressure asked for a volunteer, 15-year-old Katie Moegenberg got the nod ... COVID-19 Crisis Has Stalled FightAgainstHIV/AIDS. AHA News ... AHA News ... American Heart Association News covers heart and brain health.
Hard-won progress against HIV has stalled, putting millions of lives at risk, according to an alarming report Wednesday on how the COVID-19 pandemic and other global crises are jeopardizing efforts to end AIDS... He’s now been off anti-AIDS medication for 17 months with no signs of HIV, Dr.